Denizli lies in the Aegean region of southwestern Turkey, Nestling against high mountains near the Meander River, it is the capital of Denizli province of Turkey, and has a population of 275480 according to the 2000 census.
The surrounding fertile valley and extensive forests, together with its archaelogical wealth makes it a great attraction for tourists. Modern Denizli is a city of hotels, parks and broad streets. Although Denizli lies in the Aegean region, its location in the inner region spares it largely from the Aegean climate. It has a terrestrial climate and is fanned by winds from the sea. The winter is warm and rainy.
Denizli is well connected by road to all regions of Turkey. By rail it is connected to Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. The rail route to Izmir runs parallel to the 180 kilometers long Denizili – Aydin – Izmir highway. The airport at Cardak county center is about 70 kilometers from the city center. Denizli can be an attractive stopover while traveling between the major provinces of Turkey. By and large it has everything a tourist wants. But it has something you will not get anywhere – the natural wonder of “white frozen castles” of Pammukale. The city was built by II Antiokos in the name of his wife in between the years of 261 – 246 B.C and called as “Laodikeia”. The inhabitants of Laodicea were settled here until the invasions of the Muslims. The Persians, Macedonians, Romans and Byzantines, Seljuks, and Ottomans took control of the city. Once the Turks conquered the region, the center of the city became Kaleiçi due to its rich water resources and called as “Denizli” whichmeans seaside in Turkish because of several rivers and lakes around it. During the Independence War, the Greek forces came as close to Sarayköy which is a small town 20 km northwest of Denizli, but could not venture into Denizli where resistance was ready.
The surreal, brilliant white travertine terraces and warm, limpid pools of Pamukkale hang, like the petrified cascade of a mighty waterfall, from the rim of a steep valley side in Turkey’s picturesque southwest. Truly spectacular in its own right, the geological phenomenon that is Pamukkale, literally “Cotton Castle” in Turkish, is also the site of the remarkably well-preserved ruins of the Greek-Roman city of Hierapolis.
Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain, calcite-laden waters have created at Pamukkale (Cotton Palace) an unreal landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins. At the end of the 2nd century B.C. the dynasty of the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon, established the thermal spa of Hierapolis. The ruins of the baths, temples and other Greek monuments can be seen at the site.
The iron in the water gives a red appearance to the smaller travertines in Karahayıt. The water in Pamukkale is younger and contains less iron compare to Karahayıt’s water, which is the reason why Pamukkale’s travertines are white. Both waters contain calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate and minerals. Karahayıt’s water comes hotter from the source.
In the ancient city of Hierapolis and during the Roman Empire, there were more than 15 baths around the area, that attracts thousands of people for health purposes. The current bath was formed by an earthquake that occurred in 7th century A.C. During the earthquake 1st century Ionian archways collapsed into the bath, giving the mystique setting to the water that still stands today.
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